Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged and school-aged children infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a randomised controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial

T Coulibaly, Jean and Panic, Gordana and D Silué, Kigbafori and Kovač, Jana and Hattendorf, Jan and Keiser, Jennifer (2017) Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged and school-aged children infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a randomised controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Global Health, 5 (7). e688-e698. ISSN 0140-6736

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Abstract

Background Praziquantel has been the drug of choice for schistosomiasis control for more than 40 years, yet surprisingly, the optimal dose for children younger than 4 years is not known. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of escalating praziquantel dosages in preschool-aged children (PSAC). Methods We did a randomised controlled, parallel-group, single-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial in PSAC (2–5 years) and school-aged children (SAC; aged 6–15 years) as a comparator group in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Children were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg praziquantel or placebo. Participants, investigators, and laboratory technicians were masked to group assignment, while the investigator providing treatment was aware of the treatment group. The primary objective was to estimate the nature of the dose–response relation in terms of cure rate using the Kato Katz technique. Dose–response curves were estimated using Emax models. Available case analysis was done including all participants with primary endpoint data. This trial is registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN15280205. Findings Between Nov 11, 2014, and Feb 18, 2015, 660 PSAC and 225 SAC were assessed for eligibility; of whom 161 (24%) PSAC and 180 (80%) SAC had a detectable Schistosoma mansoni infection. 161 PSAC were randomly allocated of whom 154 received treatment: 42 were assigned to 20 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 40 received treatment; 38 were assigned to 40 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 38 received treatment; 41 were assigned to 60 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 39 received treatment; and 40 were assigned to placebo, of whom 37 received placebo. 180 SAC were randomly allocated of whom 177 received treatment: 49 were assigned to 20 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 47 received treatment; 46 were assigned to 40 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 46 received treatment; 42 were assigned to 60 mg/kg praziquantel, of whom 42 received treatment; and 43 were assigned to placebo, of whom 43 received treatment. Follow-up (available-case) data were available for 143 PSAC and 174 SAC. In PSAC, the 20 mg/kg dose resulted in cure in 23 children (62%; 95% CI 44·8–77·5), 40 mg/kg in 26 children (72%; 54·8–85·8), 60 mg/kg in 25 children (71%; 53·7–85·4), and placebo in 13 children (37%; 21·5–55·1). In SAC, the 20 mg/kg dose resulted in cure in 14 children (30%; 95% CI 17·7–45·8), 40 mg/kg in 31 children (69%; 53·4–81·8), 60 mg/kg in 34 children (83%; 67·9–92·8), and placebo in five children (12%; 4·0–25·6). For both age groups, the number of adverse events was similar among the three praziquantel treatment groups, with fewer adverse events observed in the placebo groups. The most common adverse events in PSAC were diarrhoea (11 [9%] of 124) and stomach ache (ten [8%]) and in SAC were diarrhoea (50 [28%] of 177), stomach ache (66 [37%]), and vomiting (26 [15%]) 3 h post treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. Interpretation Praziquantel shows a flat dose-response and overall lower efficacy in PSAC compared with in SAC. In the absence of treatment alternatives, a single dose of praziquantel of 40 mg/kg, recommended by the WHO for S mansoni infections in SAC can be endorsed for PSAC in preventive chemotherapy programmes.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health
Divisions: Faculty of Medicin
Depositing User: Touba Derakhshande
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2017 04:51
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2017 04:51
URI: http://eprints.bpums.ac.ir/id/eprint/5788

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