Association of Pathogen Burden and Hypertension: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study

Vahdat, Katayoun and Pourbehi, Mohammad Reza and Ostovar, Afshin and Hadavand, Fahimeh and Bolkheir, Alireza and Assadi, Majid and Farrokhnia, Maryam and Iraj, Nabipour (2013) Association of Pathogen Burden and Hypertension: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study. American Journal of Hypertension, 26 (9). pp. 1140-1147.


Download (924kB) | Preview


background Chronic infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and Helicobacter pylori may contribute to essential hypertension. However, the evidence now available does not clarify whether the aggregate number of pathogens (pathogen burden) may be associated with hypertension. methods Sera from 1,754 men and women aged ≥25 years were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. pneumoniae, HSV-1, H. pylori, and CMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aggregate number of seropositives to the studied viral and bacterial agents was defined as pathogen burden. Hypertension was defined according to World Health Organization criteria. results A total of 459 (26.3%) of the subjects had hypertension. In the hypertensive group, 4.2% had 0 or 1 pathogens present, 20.6% had 2, 43.2% had 3, and 32.1% had 4; in the normotensive group, 7.9% had 0 or 1, 28.4% had 2, 42.7% had 3, and 21.0% had 4. Of the 4 studied pathogens, H. pylori seropositivity showed a significant independent association with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) =1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.05–1.79; P = 0.02). In multiple logistic regression analyses, the pathogen burden did not show a significant independent association with hypertension. Coinfection with H. pylori and C. pneumoniae was significantly associated with hypertension compared with double seronegativity after adjustment for age, sex, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.14–2.47; P = 0.008]. conclusions The pathogen burden was not associated with hypertension. However, coinfection with C. pneumoniae and H. pylori showed a significant association with essential hypertension, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic low-grade inflammation

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WG Cardiovascular System
Divisions: Faculty of Medicin
Depositing User: زهرا صفایی
Date Deposited: 03 Jul 2018 08:29
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2018 08:29

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item