Presence of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ravanipour, M and Hadi, M and Rastkari, N and Hemmati Borji, S and Nasseri, S (2021) Presence of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28 (21). ISSN 09441344

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Water quality is one of the most important indices for public health especially for drinking water consumptions. This study was conducted to survey the presence of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Iran using a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature search was conducted in data bases of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and some Persian databases up to 31 July 2018. Of all the articles reviewed (1151 articles), 61 papers were eligible for systematic review. Results indicated variable heterogeneity between studies for different pollutants (I2 between 0 and 100). A subgroup analysis was performed for three different types of water resources such as drinking water, groundwater, and surface water to find the possible source of the heterogeneity. The pooled mean concentration level of iron was the highest at 255.8 (95% CI = 79.48–432.13 μg/l) and vanadium the lowest at 3.21 (95% CI = 1.45–4.98 μg/l). The sequence of metal concentration (μg/l) in descending order is as follows: Fe (255.8) > B (159.81) > Al (158.5) > Zn (130.73) > As (85.85) > Mn (51.61) > Cu (47.98) > Se (42.68) > Pb (37.22) > Co (22.76) > Mo (18.92) > Ni (16.79) > Cr (13.47) > Hg (4.49) > Cd (4.19) > V (3.21). The mean pooled concentration level of Al, As, Se, Pb, and Cd was higher than the WHO guideline and Iran Standard, and the rest of the metals had lower mean pooled concentration level. Pb and Cd were the common heavy metals that existed in all subgroups. As a recommendation, the relationship assessment of water parameters and heavy metals could be addressed in future studies of Iran’s water resources. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Item Type: Article
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics > School of Civil Engineering and the Environment
Depositing User: خدیجه شبانکاره
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2021 05:52
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2021 05:52

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