Fluoride content and hazard quotient for beverages marketed in iran

Tangestani, M. and Mahvi, A.H and Dobaradaran, S. and Jamali, M. and Saeedi, R. and Spitz, J. (2021) Fluoride content and hazard quotient for beverages marketed in iran. Fluoride, 54 (2). pp. 178-192. ISSN 00154725

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Official URL: https://www.fluorideresearch.org/


Beverages are one of the main sources of fluoride (F) entry to the body, especially in some countries located in the tropical regions. The aim of this study was to determine, for various beverages available in markets in Iran, the F concentration, the estimated daily intake, and the hazard quotient value (HQ), a measure of non-carcinogenic risk. The beverages studied were: doogh (a popular dairy-based drink in the Middle East produced from fermented milk made from mixing yoghurt, water, herbs, and salt), carbonated soft drinks, non-alcoholic beers, and energy drinks. The F contents of 105 beverage samples were analyzed by using an ion-selective electrode. The range and mean values (mg L-1) of the F concentrations found in the various beverages were: doogh: 0.058–0.86, 0.21; carbonated soft drinks: 0.012–1.10, 0.23; non-alcoholic beers: 0.006–0.58, 0.11; and energy drinks: 0.076–1.60, 0.37. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the F levels of the energy drinks and the other beverages. The HQ values for all the age groups showed that no significant risk of fluoride toxicity for consumers was present due to beverage consumption. However, it should be noted that other F sources such as drinking water, food, toothpaste and other beverages, such as different types of tea, may contribute to a higher intake of F in body and consequently, increase the risk of adverse health effects from high F exposure.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV pharmacology
Divisions: Vice Chancellery for Research > Persian_Gulf_Biomedical_Sciences_Research_Institute
Depositing User: خدیجه شبانکاره
Date Deposited: 27 Dec 2021 07:03
Last Modified: 27 Dec 2021 07:03
URI: http://eprints.bpums.ac.ir/id/eprint/9527

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