Prevalence of reflux nephropathy in Iranian children with solitary kidney: results of a multi-center study

Esteghamati, Maryam and Sorkhi, Hadi and Mohammadjafari, Hamid and Derakhshan, Ali and Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin and Emad Momtaz, Hossein and Mohkam, Masoumeh and Safaeian, Baranak and Hooman, Nakysa and Safaeiasl, Afshin and Akhavan Sepahi, Mohsen and Ghasemi, Khadijeh and Bazargani, Zahra and Emami, Elham (2022) Prevalence of reflux nephropathy in Iranian children with solitary kidney: results of a multi-center study. BMC Nephrology. ISSN 1471-2369

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Abstract Background: Given the importance of the function of the remnant kidney in children with unilateral renal agen‑ esis and the significance of timely diagnosis and treatment of reflux nephropathy to prevent further damage to the remaining kidney, we aimed to determine the prevalence of reflux nephropathy in this subgroup of pediatric patients. Methods: In general, 274 children referred to pediatric nephrologists in different parts of Iran were evaluated, of whom 199 had solitary kidney and were included in this cross‑sectional study. The reasons for referral included urinary tract infection (UTI), abnormal renal ultrasonography, being symptomatic, and incidental screening. Demographic characteristics, including age and gender were recorded. History of UTI and presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were evaluated. Results: Of the 274 children evaluated in this study with the mean age (SD) of 4.71 (4.24) years, 199 (72.6%) had solitary kidney. Among these, 118 (59.3%) were male and 81 (60.7%) were female, 21.1% had a history of UTI, and VUR was present in 23.1%. The most common cause of referral was abnormal renal ultrasonography (40.2%), followed by incidental screening (21.1%), being symptomatic (14.1%), and UTI (5.5%). In 116 children (58.3%), the right kidneys and in 83 (41.7%) the left kidneys were absent. Besides, 14.6% of the participants had consanguineous parents and 3% had a family history of solitary kidney. Upon DMSA scan, the single kidney was scarred in 13.1%, of which only 7.5% were associated with VUR. In addition, proteinuria and hematuria were observed in 6.5% and 1.5% of children, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of reflux nephropathy was 7.5% in children with solitary kidney with a male predomi‑ nance. Given the relatively high prevalence of reflux nephropathy in these children, screening for VUR in the remnant kidney appears to be essential in this population. Keywords: Vesicoureteral reflux, Nephropathy, Children, Solitary kidney, Renal agenesis

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WJ Urogenital System
Divisions: Faculty of Medicin > Department of Pediatrics
Depositing User: خدیجه شبانکاره
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2022 09:40
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2022 09:40

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