Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes as an Antimicrobial Weapon for Orodental Infections

Jafari, Nazanin and Khoradmehr, Arezoo and Moghiminasr, Reza and Seyed Habashi, Mina (2022) Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes as an Antimicrobial Weapon for Orodental Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology. ISSN 1664-302X

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The oral cavity as the second most various microbial community in the body contains a broad spectrum of microorganisms which are known as the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome includes different types of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Numerous factors can affect the equilibrium of the oral microbiome community which can eventually lead to orodental infectious diseases. Periodontitis, dental caries, oral leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma are some multifactorial infectious diseases in the oral cavity. In defending against infection, the immune system has an essential role. Depending on the speed and specificity of the reaction, immunity is divided into two different types which are named the innate and the adaptive responses but also there is much interaction between them. In these responses, different types of immune cells are present and recent evidence demonstrates that these cell types both within the innate and adaptive immune systems are capable of secreting some extracellular vesicles named exosomes which are involved in the response to infection. Exosomes are 30–150 nm lipid bilayer vesicles that consist of variant molecules, including proteins, lipids, and genetic materials and they have been associated with cell-to-cell communications. However, some kinds of exosomes can be effective on the pathogenicity of various microorganisms and promoting infections, and some other ones have antimicrobial and anti-infective functions in microbial diseases. These discrepancies in performance are due to the origin of the exosome. Exosomes can modulate the innate and specific immune responses of host cells by participating in antigen presentation for activation of immune cells and stimulating the release of inflammatory factors and the expression of immune molecules. Also, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes participate in immunomodulation by different mechanisms. Ease of expansion and immunotherapeutic capabilities of MSCs, develop their applications in hundreds of clinical trials. Recently, it has been shown that cell-free therapies, like exosome therapies, by having more advantages than previous treatment methods are emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of several diseases, in particular inflammatory conditions. In orodental infectious disease, exosomes can also play an important role by modulating immunoinflammatory responses. Therefore, MSCs-derived exosomes may have potential therapeutic effects to be a choice for controlling and treatment of orodental infectious diseases.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WU Dentistry. Oral surgery
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry
Depositing User: خدیجه شبانکاره
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2022 07:13
Last Modified: 09 Nov 2022 07:13

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